Pravna i ekonomska analiza sustava prevencije pranja novca i financiranja terorizma

Realizacija radnog plana 1. - 3. mj. projekta

Rad pod nazivom "Application of Risk Based Approach Related to Non-Financial Sector in the Scope of Anti-Money Laundering System" autorice doc. dr. sc. Sonje Cindori prezentiran je i objavljen u okviru "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2015" u Albeni, Bulgarska.

Abstract

The Directive 2005/60/EC and the FATF Recommendations prescribe and drive performance and assignment of specific tasks and duties for the non-financial sector professionals in the anti-money laundering system. The scope of their activities is limited to financial transactions, bounded by professional confidentiality; where the obligation to report suspicious activity is legislatively restricted to their core business. The low number of reported suspicious transactions by the non-financial sector professionals, as a measure of participation in anti-money laundering prevention initiative, raises a question of whether their duties conflict with their obligations for the respect of fundamental human rights, right to fair trial and a legal defence, citizens’ privacy, respect for legal profession and legal profession’s independent status.

In answering this question, the analysis looked at international legislations, FATF Recommendations and Reports, as well as several studies and assessments. Additionally, the results provided by the legal community - relationship between the total number of reported suspicious transactions and the number of suspicious transactions reported by the non-financial sector professionals in some EU country members, were also analysed. The primary goal of investigating the relationship between the legal foundations vs. the numerical data for the chosen EU country members is understanding the effectiveness of the anti-money laundering system as a whole, assuming that the non-financial sector professionals are its crucial element.

Keywords: money laundering, risk, FATF, non-financial sector, human rights

 

Realizacija radnog plana  4. - 6. mj. projekta

Rad pod nazivom "Uloga strategijskih analiza u prevenciji pranja novca" autorice Marijane Jurčec Crljen prezentiran je i objavljen u sklopu međunarodne znanstvene konferencije "Forensic Audit 2015" u Beogradu, Srbija.

Sažetak

Sustav prevencije pranja novca i financiranja terorizma počiva na aplikaciji procesa procjene rizika na svim instancama njegove provedbe. Procjena rizika inicijalno je regulirana međunarodnim standardima, ali i pretočena u nacionalno zakonodavstvo. Na razini hrvatske financijsko-obavještajne jedinice, procjena rizika se očituje u permanentnoj analizi prijavljenih transakcija i slučajeva s utvrđenom sumnjom na pranje novca i financiranje terorizma, s krajnjim ciljem utvrđivanja recentnih modaliteta pranja novca te podizanjem učinkovitosti sustava na višu razinu.

Ključne riječi: pranje novca, financiranje terorizma, strategijske analize, rizik, sumnja, transakcija

 

Realizacija radnog plana 6. mj. projekta

Dana 29. listopada 2015. održana je radionica pod nazivom "Osnove modaliteta prevencije pranja novca i financiranja terorizma". Slike s radionice dostupne su u repozitoriju.

 

Realizacija radnog plana  7. - 9. mj. projekta

Završna analiza podataka za rad na temu "Utvrđivanje ekonomskih determinanti kaznenih djela protiv imovine" koautora Ozren Pilipović, Meta Ahtik, Miran Marelja je završen i objavit će se u publikaciji „Revija za kriminalistiko i kriminologijo“ najkasnije do kraja 2017. 

Abstract

The first longitudinal study of this type in countries of former Yugoslavia addresses economic and social causes of crime and tries to determinate their significance in criminal behaviour through development of an empirical model that analyses criminal behaviour in countries of former Yugoslavia namely: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia by using time series data for the period from 1973 till 2014. Theoretical framework from the fields of criminology, economics and law implies that besides institutional environment and social structure economic situation importantly determines the level of crime in society. Econometric analysis uses variables that represent determinants of crime: economic conditions, probability of conviction and, additionally to the basic model, share of young males in the population and dummy variable that represents some of the peculiarities in the transition period in former Yugoslav countries.

 

 

Realizacija radnog plana 10.-12. mj. projekta

Rad koautora Tatjane Kovač Klemar i MIrana Marelje na temu "Institutional Support For Terrorist Financing Prevention" je završen. Prezentacija i objava se očekuju se u svibnju 2017. u sklopu konferencije ATINER 2017, Atena, Grčka.

Abstract

 

This paper focuses on the historical overview of the international framework for terrorist financing prevention, with the emphasis on the analysis of EU and non-EU institutions in charge of terrorist financing prevention and relevant to Member States such as Republic of Croatia. As part of the comprehensive analysis, the paper covers institutions' significance and historical overview of legal standards under their competence relevant for terrorism financing prevention. By analysing Resolutions, the paper presents the analyses of activities carried out by the United Nations, particularly focusing on the General Assembly and relevant Conventions, as well as the United Nations Security Council. The most important segments of EU institutions competent for adopting Directives on the prevention of terrorist financing have been analysed. It also includes analysis of the Financial Action Task Force, the Committee of Experts on the Evaluation of Anti-Money Laundering Measures and the Financing of Terrorism - MONEYVAL and the Egmont Group.

 

 

Realizacija radnog plana 11.-13 mj. projekta

Rad doktorandice Jelene Dinić pod nazivom "Pranje novca kao ekonomska dimenzija terorizma" objavljen je u Zborniku Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci, vol. 37, no. 2, srpanj 2016.

Sažetak

U radu se prezentuje ekonomska dimenzija terorizma kroz analizu potreba terorističkih organizacija za finansijskim sredstvima, moduli finasiranja terorizma i veza sa pranjem novca. Finansijska sredstva predstavljaju jedan od najvažnijih preduslova za održavanje infrastrukture terorističkih organizacija i izvođenje terorističkih aktivnosti. Sredstva stečena legalnim i ilegalnim putem pripadnici terorističkih organizacija tehnikama pranja novca sprovode kroz finasijske sisteme, prikrivajući svrhu novca namenjenu za organizovanje terorističkih napada. Zbog globalne prirode problema pranja novca i finansiranja terorizma, preventivni mehanizmi obuhvataju saradnju finansijskih,  obaveštajnih službi i međunarodnih organizacija uz jačanje nacionalnih institucija koje se bave navedenim problemom.

 

Realizacija izvan radnog plana 11.-13 mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Tajane Petrović pod nazivom "Anti-Money Laundering Challenges of Unbounded Virtual World Economy" je prezentiran na "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2016, Albena, Bugarska.

Abstract

The development of business methodology and advantages offered by the digital economy influenced the use of virtual world’s economies and virtual currencies as an alternative for money laundering and terrorism financing. The reason for this is the lack of capacity for customer identification, monitoring financial activity and suspicious transactions application system to the authorities. The issue of virtual currencies regulation is of great importance because they have growing influence in world trade, taking into account all the centralized and decentralized currency specifics, as well as diversities arising from its characteristics of convertible and non-convertible currency.  In addition to a number of risks, anonymity is regarded to be the most serious risk of establishing an effective money laundering and terrorism financing prevention system as a challenge to the legislative treatment of their use in terms of the virtual world economy.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 11.-13 mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Tajane Petrović pod nazivom "Indikatori rizičnosti bankarskog sektora u okvirima prevencije pranja novca" je objavljen u Zborniku Pravnog fakulteta vol. 66, br. 6., 2016.

Sažetak

Bankarski sektor još uvijek ima vrlo važnu ulogu u prevenciji pranja novca i financiranja terorizma. Razvoj banaka, širenje opsega njihova poslovanja i sadržaja usluga koje pružaju na određeni je način usmjeravao razvoj metoda i tehnika pranja novca i sve aktualnijeg financiranja terorizma. Pritom se posebno ističe značenje visokorizičnih poslova u okvirima privatnog, korespondentnog, digitalnog, virtualnog i off-shore bankarstva, kao i specifičnosti islamskog bankarstva te banaka koje posluju na načelima kršćanske etike. Iz razloga raznolikosti i kompleksnosti usluga i proizvoda koje pružaju, bankarski sektor razvio je indikatore za utvrđivanje i stupnjevanje sumnje na pranje novca i financiranje terorizma te procjene rizika poslovanja. U prilog tezi o izraženoj atraktivnosti bankarskog sektora u provođenju procesa pranja novca i financiranja terorizma te važnosti pristupa temeljenog na procjeni rizika izložena je komparacija prijava sumnjivih transakcija u Republici Hrvatskoj s još trima zemljama iz regije.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 13.-14. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Žarka Ćulibrka pod nazivom "Finansijski aspekti terorističkih dejstava i protivterorističke borbe" prezentiran je na konferenciji ERAZ 2016. u Beogradu i objavljen u Zborniku radova s konferencije.

Sažetak

Za osnovnu temu rada uzeti su finansijski aspekti terorističkih dejstava i protivterorističke borbe, a poseban osvrt načinjen je ka sprečavanju pranja novca i finansiranja terorizma. Tokom izrade rada korištene su uglavnom komparativna analiza i metoda analize sadržaja. Cilj ovog naučnog rada je da se pokaže da u pripremi terorizma finansijski segment zauzima značajno mjesto, kao i to da država i društvo, i sa finansijskog stanovišta, moraju razraditi djelotvoran sistem suprotstavljanja ovoj ekstremnoj pojavi.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 13.-15 mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Žane Pedić pod nazivom "The Impact of the Data Protection Right on the Implementation of the Anti-Money Laundering Measures" prezentiran je na "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2016, Albena, Bugarska. Za prezentaciju rada Sonja Cindori je dobila nagradu "The best presentation 2016".

Abstract

In the European Union and its member states, protection of personal data represents the fundamental right that belongs to all natural persons, as defined by the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Such “data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of the consent of the person concerned or on some other legitimate basis laid down by law.” The processing of personal data includes all of the possible activities related to the prevention, investigation, detection, and prosecution of criminal offences - including the money laundering offence. This means that the protection of personal data and activities related to the fight against money laundering, do not overlap. However, there still is a question of potential misuse of the aforementioned activities resulting in the breach of an individual’s personal data protection rights.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 16.-18. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori, Nenada Rančića i Luise Fernande Bernat Diaz pod radnim nazivom "Croatian Perspective of Suspicious Transactions in a Framework of Anti-Money Laundering System" je završen. Prezentiran je i objavljen u okviru konferencije "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2017, Albena, Bugarska. Za prezentaciju rada Sonja Cindori je dobila nagradu "The best presentation 2017".

Abstract

Article highlights issues related to multiple meaning of the term suspicious transaction and its complex nature. Following the basic international definitions of suspicious transaction, national legislations try to adjust them to the domestic conditions. The results of selected legislative frameworks are presented through the statistical analysis of three Western European countries and the Republic of Croatia. Analysis of reversal that happened in suspicious transactions reporting aims at highlighting the importance of suspicious transactions in interrelations between reporting entities and FIUs and at emphasizing their role in further stage of proceeding related to reports in which there is a suspicion on money Laundering and/or terrorism financing.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 17.-20. mj. projekta

Rad doktorandice Jelene Dinić pod nazivom "Money Laundering as a Form of Financing Terrorism Through the Prism of Terrorist Organization "Islamic State of Iraq and Levant" je završen i predan na objavu u Czech yearbook of international law, Češka. Rad je u postupku recenzije. Objava se očekuje u listopadu 2017.

Sažetak

Money laundering is an integral part of the criminal activities of terrorist organizations with the aim of concealing the source and purpose of funds. The terrorist organization "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL) from the moment of its foundation attracted big public attention because of the brutal methods used in the fight to achieve their goals as well as the amount of money that the organization had. Autarkic systemof ISIL survives because of internal forms of financing such as the oil trade and various forms of organized crime. Microfinancing of ISIL takes place through donations of individuals who resort to various forms of financial malfeasance motivated by providing substantive contributions to this terrorist organization. Misuse of bank loans and social help, frequent transfers of certain amount of money that is not under the scope of financial authorities and smuggling of cash across the Turkish-Syrian border are just a few methods that ISIL members use to obtain their funds.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 18. mj. projekta

Dana 13. listopada 2016. održana je radionica pod nazivom "Specifičnosti prevencije financiranja terorizma". Slike s radionice dostupne su u repozitoriju.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 18.-20. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Tajane Petrović pod nazivom "The Significance of Assessing Money Laundering Risk as a Part of Auditing Operations" je u postupku recenzije. Njegova se objava očekuje do kraja 2017. u Athens Journal of Business & Economics, Atena.

Abstract

In addition to the ever attractive financial sector, the effect of globalisation on the development of money laundering and terrorist financing process has gradually been including the non-financial sector, namely, independent legal professions. The specific nature of the auditing profession, providing a full insight into financial operations and analysis of individual business entities' transactions, can result in a detection and prevention of money laundering, theft and other criminal activities. Auditor independence is the auditor's main tool when performing basic auditing tasks, controls and reporting on suspicious transactions in accordance with the adopted code of ethics.

The risk-based approach is omnipresent in auditing even though auditors often focus on low-risk business entities. However, some business processes result in events and circumstances which increase the risk of fraud and errors. The risk of not detecting a fraud or error is significantly higher when it comes to fraud as it represents a deliberately incorrect statement while an error is a non-intentional omission resulting from negligence. Due to the implementation of international standards into a national framework, focusing on permanent training and control of the non-financial sector, the auditing profession has earned its role of “gatekeeper” in the anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing system.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 18.-21. mj. projekta

Rad Tatjane Kovač Klemar i Sonje Cindori pod nazivom "Hawala's Appeal In Terrorism Financing" je u postupku recenzije. Rad će biti prezentiran i objavljen u okviru 8th International Scientific Conference "Security Concepts and Policies - New Generation of Risks and Threats", Ohrid, Makedonija, lipanj 2017. 

Abstract

As an alternative value transfer system, Hawala has certain benefits, but also shortcomings when compared to the classical banking system. Hawala is implemented in value transfer systems of many Asian and Pacific countries effectively which is demonstrated by the fact that the flow of money through it amounts to billions of dollars annually. Beside its negative effect on the macroeconomic area as potential adverse statistical, fiscal, and balance-of-payments implications of such activities, there is one very specific positive characteristic inherent to Hawala which particularly stands out - the relationship of trust between participants who most frequently belong to the same ethnic group.

Reasons why Hawala can be misused for money laundering and terrorism financing is because it is impossible to fully control and regulate such a system, there is no written record of carried out transactions and it is very efficient for moving large amounts of money quickly and secretly. Even though control of such a system can be described as "catching smoke", its significance and efficiency in money laundering and terrorism financing cannot be ignored, which is why appropriate prevention measures need to be implemented.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 20.-22. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Ane Zakarija pod nazivom "Prijevare u sustavu poreza na dodanu vrijednost kao predikatno djelo pranja novca" će se prezentirati i objaviti u okviru konferencije "Održivi ekonomski razvoj zasnovan na znanju  - ERAZ 2017", Beograd, lipanj 2017.

Sažetak

Pranje novca podrazumijeva svaki novac stečen kaznenim djelom zbog čega postoji uska veza s prijevarama u sustavu poreza na dodanu vrijednost. Oba sustava predstavljaju fenomen današnjice u prijevarnim postupanjima zbog načina njihova provođenja, često bez vidljivog traga. Nadležne institucije Republike Hrvatske imaju za cilj onemogućiti pranje novca, a time suzbiti i predikatna djela te na minimalnu mjeru svesti kaznena djela prijevara u sustavu poreza na dodanu vrijednost. Njihova se poveznica očituje ne samo u činjenici uzročno-posljedične veze, već u posljedicama na gospodarstvo, socijalnu stabilnosti i kredibilitet države u cjelini.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 20.-23. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Jelene Slović pod nazivom "Identifying Money Laundering In Business Operations As A Factor For Estimating Risk" prezentiran je u travnju 2017. na "20th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development" Prag.

Abstract

 

Money laundering and terrorist financing can be performed in many ways, regular business operations being among them. Business activities go through a large number of business changes, which offers numerous options for money or assets to enter the company via seemingly legal business transactions, enabling money or assets to remain in regular business flows once money laundering is completed. On the other hand, the opposite scenario, in which there is interest in money to be transferred from regular flows to alternative flows, including terrorism financing, is also common.

 

This paper will discuss legal business operations as a framework for money laundering and terrorist financing. Cash flow cycles are presented in form of an algorithm as connections between irregularly and regularly acquired assets in the process of money laundering through business operations, as well as re-entry from regular flows into alternative cash flows. The "Butterfly Diagram", presenting groups of business changes enabling entry of larger amounts of money and assets owned by a company in order to be laundered or their exit with the effect or tax evasion or terrorism financing, evolved from the algorithm. Also, the "Butterfly Diagram" includes certain forms of legal and tax misuse which enable legalising the specified activities. The business reality is exceptionally dynamic and needs of money launderers keep growing, which is why there is an increase in types and numbers of business transactions that can be used for money laundering or terrorism financing, resulting in the need to keep modifying the presented "Butterfly Diagram".

 

 

Realizacija radnog plana 23.-26. mj. projekta

Rad Snežane Mojsoske i Nikole Dujovskog pod nazivom "The connection of macroeconomic variables and money laundering" je prezentiran i objavljen u sklopu konferencije 8th International Scientific Conference "Security Concepts and Policies - New Generation of Risks and Threats", Ohrid, lipanj 2017. 

Abstract

 

The term money laundering is integrally connected to the problem of corruption, organized crime, financial fraud, smuggling and other crimes that are made with a single purpose of making profit. The fact is that every year large sums of money generated by illegal activities such as drugs, tax evasion, theft, corruption, human trafficking and so on. This problem causes major consequences on the national and on the international economy.

There is a strong connection of money laundering with macroeconomics variables.

This paper aims to analyze issues, impact and consequences of money laundering trough macroeconomic variables. There are several negative effects that money laundering make it to economy as effects on the real sector (business activities, on relative prices, consumption, saving, output, growth), influence on the public sector (revenues, privatization efforts), effects on the monetary economy and the financial sector. In conclusion will be give directions for further improvement of prevention of money laundering in order to protect national economies.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 23.-26. mj. projekta

Rad Nikole Dujovskiog i Snezhane Mojsoske pod nazivom "The role of police in organized crime and money laundering prevention" je prezentiran i objavljen u sklopu konferencije 8th International Scientific Conference "Security Concepts and Policies - New Generation of Risks and Threats", Ohrid, lipanj 2017.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 25.-28. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Jelene Slović pod nazivom "The Role of Corporate Governance in the Origins of Corporate Crime" prezentiran je u kolovozu 2017. na konferenciji "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2017, Albena, Bugarska.

 

Abstract

A series of big scandals from 1990s has drawn attention to the corporate sector and has brought about questions regarding the quality of the legislative scope of corporate governance. Apart from the active role of corporate governance as the key factor in protecting companies from corporate crime, particularly on the microeconomic level, its contribution on the macroeconomic level is also not negligible in terms of its impact on the effects of illegal business operations through the implementation of money laundering and terrorist financing prevention systems.

Goals of corporate crime and money laundering as well as terrorist financing are often intertwined. Their modus operandi includes legal and regular business transactions, but also various corporate, tax, legal and IT speculations which contribute to the realization of unlawful activities. Affirmation of corporate crime through seemingly regular business activities points to the fact that when raising awareness of tax and other authorities, as well as numerous practitioners in the role of supervisors in the process of detection of money laundering or terrorist financing risks, the possibility of detecting suspicious transactions increases. The extent of operations subject to illegal activities speaks in favour of the fact that governance structures in companies have a significant impact on corporate crime in the sense of its prevention or realization, which brings the importance of corporate governance to a higher level.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 27.-29. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori pod nazivom "Recent Trends in Anti Money Laundering System: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction" prezentiran je i objavljen u okviru konferencije The Third International Scientific - Professional Conference Security and Crisis Management - Theory and Practice „Safety for Future 2017”, Obrenovac, Srbija.

 

Abstract

The rise of a new threat to global security in form of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and its financing resulted in the need to take coordinated measures to protect the integrity of the international financial system and implement them into national legislation. Even though proliferation is close to the issue of terrorism with regard to terminology and basic characteristics, the primary goal of its prevention is achieved by the application of anti-money laundering measures within the framework of the risk based approach basic principles.

Collected information about clients and transactions are confidential and are processed and treated using applicable screening and further monitoring measures. They need to be exchanged with competent institutions on the national and international level, financial intelligence units and the private sector. Key similarities with the anti-money laundering and terrorism financing issues will undoubtedly set the pace and direction of the measures for the prevention of proliferation and its financing, while emphasising its particularities which require specific treatment.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 28.-30. mj. projekta

Rad Žane Pedić pod nazivom "Interconnectivity and differences of the (information) privacy right and personal data protection right in the European Union" je završen i u postupku je recenzije.

 

Abstract

Right to (information) privacy and right to personal data protection have many common contact points. However, the very act of developing data protection, as a younger right into the sui generis right shows that these two rights are not the same and that there are differences between them, huge enough to make them separate legal rights. The main trigger for noticing their different nature, purpose and background and for development of the data protection into the separate right was the revolution in the information technology solutions. This IT progress, for the first time, enabled massive and relatively cheap operations with the personal data and brought not only concern about the security of the personal data, but also unbelievable business possibilities. It was the turning point for the codification of the data protection right which started from 1970ies, aiming to create separate rules and legislation which will understand the importance of not only of protecting personal data but of their regulated and lawful usage. Despite all what was said, there is still certain confusion regarding these two rights, mainly because in the initial phase of the massive usage of the new IT solutions, when the data protection legislation still wasn’t developed, information privacy right served as the only legal protection of the data protection right and the relationship between these two rights is complex even today and deserves to be further researched.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 30.-33. mj. projekta

U tijeku je pisanje rada Sonje Cindori i Ksenije Ostojić po nazivom "Atraktivnost off shore zona kao utočišta porezne evazije i pranja novca".

 

Realizacija radnog plana 30. mj. projekta

Dana 26. listopada 2017. održana je radionica pod nazivom "Recentni modaliteti terorizma i njegovog financiranja". Slike s radionice dostupne su u repozitoriju.


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