Pravna i ekonomska analiza sustava prevencije pranja novca i financiranja terorizma

Realizacija radnog plana 1. - 3. mj. projekta

Rad pod nazivom "Application of Risk Based Approach Related to Non-Financial Sector in the Scope of Anti-Money Laundering System" autorice Sonje Cindori prezentiran je i objavljen u okviru "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2015" u Albeni, Bulgarska.

Abstract

The Directive 2005/60/EC and the FATF Recommendations prescribe and drive performance and assignment of specific tasks and duties for the non-financial sector professionals in the anti-money laundering system. The scope of their activities is limited to financial transactions, bounded by professional confidentiality; where the obligation to report suspicious activity is legislatively restricted to their core business. The low number of reported suspicious transactions by the non-financial sector professionals, as a measure of participation in anti-money laundering prevention initiative, raises a question of whether their duties conflict with their obligations for the respect of fundamental human rights, right to fair trial and a legal defence, citizens’ privacy, respect for legal profession and legal profession’s independent status. In answering this question, the analysis looked at international legislations, FATF Recommendations and Reports, as well as several studies and assessments. Additionally, the results provided by the legal community - relationship between the total number of reported suspicious transactions and the number of suspicious transactions reported by the non-financial sector professionals in some EU country members, were also analysed. The primary goal of investigating the relationship between the legal foundations vs. the numerical data for the chosen EU country members is understanding the effectiveness of the anti-money laundering system as a whole, assuming that the non-financial sector professionals are its crucial element.

 

 

Realizacija radnog plana  4. - 6. mj. projekta

Rad pod nazivom "Uloga strategijskih analiza u prevenciji pranja novca" autorice Marijane Jurčec Crljen prezentiran je i objavljen u sklopu međunarodne znanstvene konferencije "Forensic Audit 2015" u Beogradu, Srbija.

Sažetak

Sustav prevencije pranja novca i financiranja terorizma počiva na aplikaciji procesa procjene rizika na svim instancama njegove provedbe. Procjena rizika inicijalno je regulirana međunarodnim standardima, ali i pretočena u nacionalno zakonodavstvo. Na razini hrvatske financijsko-obavještajne jedinice, procjena rizika se očituje u permanentnoj analizi prijavljenih transakcija i slučajeva s utvrđenom sumnjom na pranje novca i financiranje terorizma, s krajnjim ciljem utvrđivanja recentnih modaliteta pranja novca te podizanjem učinkovitosti sustava na višu razinu.

 

 

Realizacija radnog plana 6. mj. projekta

Dana 29. listopada 2015. održana je radionica pod nazivom "Osnove modaliteta prevencije pranja novca i financiranja terorizma". Slike s radionice dostupne su u repozitoriju.

 

 

Realizacija radnog plana  7. - 9. mj. projekta

Rad "Property Crime in the Countries of the Former Yugoslavia – A Longitudinal Study" koautora Ozrena Pilipović, Mete Ahtik, Mirana Marelja objavljen je u publikaciji „Journal of Criminal Investigation and Criminology“ Vol. 68, Iss 4., Slovenija.

Abstract

The first longitudinal study of this type in countries of former Yugoslavia addresses economic and social causes of crime and tries to determinate their significance in criminal behaviour through development of an empirical model that analyses criminal behaviour in countries of former Yugoslavia namely: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia by using time series data for the period from 1973 till 2014. Theoretical framework from the fields of criminology, economics and law implies that besides institutional environment and social structure economic situation importantly determines the level of crime in society. Econometric analysis uses variables that represent determinants of crime: economic conditions, probability of conviction and, additionally to the basic model, share of young males in the population and dummy variable that represents some of the peculiarities in the transition period in former Yugoslav countries.

 

 

Realizacija radnog plana 10.-12. mj. projekta

Rad koautora Tatjane Kovač Klemar i MIrana Marelje na temu "Institutional Support For Terrorist Financing Prevention" je je prezentiran u okviru konferencije ATINER 2017, Atena, Grčka i objavljen u publikaciji Athens Journal of Law, Vol. 4, No. 1.

Abstract

This paper focuses on the historical overview of the international framework for terrorist financing prevention, with the emphasis on the analysis of EU and non-EU institutions in charge of terrorist financing prevention and relevant to Member States such as Republic of Croatia. As part of the comprehensive analysis, the paper covers institutions' significance and historical overview of legal standards under their competence relevant for terrorism financing prevention. By analysing Resolutions, the paper presents the analyses of activities carried out by the United Nations, particularly focusing on the General Assembly and relevant Conventions, as well as the United Nations Security Council. The most important segments of EU institutions competent for adopting Directives on the prevention of terrorist financing have been analysed. It also includes analysis of the Financial Action Task Force, the Committee of Experts on the Evaluation of Anti-Money Laundering Measures and the Financing of Terrorism - MONEYVAL and the Egmont Group.

 

 

Realizacija radnog plana 11.-13 mj. projekta

Rad doktorandice Jelene Dinić pod nazivom "Pranje novca kao ekonomska dimenzija terorizma" objavljen je u Zborniku Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci, vol. 37, no. 2, srpanj 2016.

Sažetak

U radu se prezentuje ekonomska dimenzija terorizma kroz analizu potreba terorističkih organizacija za finansijskim sredstvima, moduli finasiranja terorizma i veza sa pranjem novca. Finansijska sredstva predstavljaju jedan od najvažnijih preduslova za održavanje infrastrukture terorističkih organizacija i izvođenje terorističkih aktivnosti. Sredstva stečena legalnim i ilegalnim putem pripadnici terorističkih organizacija tehnikama pranja novca sprovode kroz finasijske sisteme, prikrivajući svrhu novca namenjenu za organizovanje terorističkih napada. Zbog globalne prirode problema pranja novca i finansiranja terorizma, preventivni mehanizmi obuhvataju saradnju finansijskih,  obaveštajnih službi i međunarodnih organizacija uz jačanje nacionalnih institucija koje se bave navedenim problemom.

 

Realizacija izvan radnog plana 11.-13 mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Tajane Petrović pod nazivom "Anti-Money Laundering Challenges of Unbounded Virtual World Economy" je prezentiran na "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2016, Albena, Bugarska.

Abstract

The development of business methodology and advantages offered by the digital economy influenced the use of virtual world’s economies and virtual currencies as an alternative for money laundering and terrorism financing. The reason for this is the lack of capacity for customer identification, monitoring financial activity and suspicious transactions application system to the authorities. The issue of virtual currencies regulation is of great importance because they have growing influence in world trade, taking into account all the centralized and decentralized currency specifics, as well as diversities arising from its characteristics of convertible and non-convertible currency.  In addition to a number of risks, anonymity is regarded to be the most serious risk of establishing an effective money laundering and terrorism financing prevention system as a challenge to the legislative treatment of their use in terms of the virtual world economy.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 11.-13 mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Tajane Petrović pod nazivom "Indikatori rizičnosti bankarskog sektora u okvirima prevencije pranja novca" je objavljen u Zborniku Pravnog fakulteta vol. 66, br. 6., 2016., Republika Hrvatska.

Sažetak

Bankarski sektor još uvijek ima vrlo važnu ulogu u prevenciji pranja novca i financiranja terorizma. Razvoj banaka, širenje opsega njihova poslovanja i sadržaja usluga koje pružaju na određeni je način usmjeravao razvoj metoda i tehnika pranja novca i sve aktualnijeg financiranja terorizma. Pritom se posebno ističe značenje visokorizičnih poslova u okvirima privatnog, korespondentnog, digitalnog, virtualnog i off-shore bankarstva, kao i specifičnosti islamskog bankarstva te banaka koje posluju na načelima kršćanske etike. Iz razloga raznolikosti i kompleksnosti usluga i proizvoda koje pružaju, bankarski sektor razvio je indikatore za utvrđivanje i stupnjevanje sumnje na pranje novca i financiranje terorizma te procjene rizika poslovanja. U prilog tezi o izraženoj atraktivnosti bankarskog sektora u provođenju procesa pranja novca i financiranja terorizma te važnosti pristupa temeljenog na procjeni rizika izložena je komparacija prijava sumnjivih transakcija u Republici Hrvatskoj s još trima zemljama iz regije.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 13.-14. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Žarka Ćulibrka pod nazivom "Finansijski aspekti terorističkih dejstava i protivterorističke borbe" prezentiran je na konferenciji ERAZ 2016. u Beogradu i objavljen u Zborniku radova s konferencije.

Sažetak

Za osnovnu temu rada uzeti su finansijski aspekti terorističkih dejstava i protivterorističke borbe, a poseban osvrt načinjen je ka sprečavanju pranja novca i finansiranja terorizma. Tokom izrade rada korištene su uglavnom komparativna analiza i metoda analize sadržaja. Cilj ovog naučnog rada je da se pokaže da u pripremi terorizma finansijski segment zauzima značajno mjesto, kao i to da država i društvo, i sa finansijskog stanovišta, moraju razraditi djelotvoran sistem suprotstavljanja ovoj ekstremnoj pojavi.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 13.-15 mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Žane Pedić pod nazivom "The Impact of the Data Protection Right on the Implementation of the Anti-Money Laundering Measures" prezentiran je na "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2016, Albena, Bugarska. Za prezentaciju rada Sonja Cindori je dobila nagradu "The best presentation 2016".

Abstract

In the European Union and its member states, protection of personal data represents the fundamental right that belongs to all natural persons, as defined by the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Such “data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of the consent of the person concerned or on some other legitimate basis laid down by law.” The processing of personal data includes all of the possible activities related to the prevention, investigation, detection, and prosecution of criminal offences - including the money laundering offence. This means that the protection of personal data and activities related to the fight against money laundering, do not overlap. However, there still is a question of potential misuse of the aforementioned activities resulting in the breach of an individual’s personal data protection rights.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 16.-18. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori, Nenada Rančića i Luise Fernande Bernat Diaz pod radnim nazivom "Croatian Perspective of Suspicious Transactions in a Framework of Anti-Money Laundering System" je završen. Prezentiran je i objavljen u okviru konferencije "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2017, Albena, Bugarska. Za prezentaciju rada Sonja Cindori je dobila nagradu "The best presentation 2017".

Abstract

Article highlights issues related to multiple meaning of the term suspicious transaction and its complex nature. Following the basic international definitions of suspicious transaction, national legislations try to adjust them to the domestic conditions. The results of selected legislative frameworks are presented through the statistical analysis of three Western European countries and the Republic of Croatia. Analysis of reversal that happened in suspicious transactions reporting aims at highlighting the importance of suspicious transactions in interrelations between reporting entities and FIUs and at emphasizing their role in further stage of proceeding related to reports in which there is a suspicion on money Laundering and/or terrorism financing.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 17.-20. mj. projekta

Rad doktorandice Jelene Dinić pod nazivom "Money Laundering as a Form of Financing Terrorism Through the Prism of Terrorist Organization "Islamic State of Iraq and Levant" objavljen je u Czech yearbook of international law, Vol. 8, Češka.

Sažetak

Money laundering is an integral part of the criminal activities of terrorist organizations with the aim of concealing the source and purpose of funds. The terrorist organization "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL) from the moment of its foundation attracted big public attention because of the brutal methods used in the fight to achieve their goals as well as the amount of money that the organization had. Autarkic systemof ISIL survives because of internal forms of financing such as the oil trade and various forms of organized crime. Microfinancing of ISIL takes place through donations of individuals who resort to various forms of financial malfeasance motivated by providing substantive contributions to this terrorist organization. Misuse of bank loans and social help, frequent transfers of certain amount of money that is not under the scope of financial authorities and smuggling of cash across the Turkish-Syrian border are just a few methods that ISIL members use to obtain their funds.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 18. mj. projekta

Dana 13. listopada 2016. održana je radionica pod nazivom "Specifičnosti prevencije financiranja terorizma". Slike s radionice dostupne su u repozitoriju.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 18.-20. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Tajane Petrović pod nazivom "The Significance of Assessing Money Laundering Risk as a Part of Auditing Operations" objavljen je u publikaciji Athens Journal of Business & Economics, Vol. 4, Issue 1, Atena, Grčka.

 

Abstract

In addition to the ever attractive financial sector, the effect of globalisation on the development of money laundering and terrorist financing process has gradually been including the non-financial sector, namely, independent legal professions. The specific nature of the auditing profession, providing a full insight into financial operations and analysis of individual business entities' transactions, can result in a detection and prevention of money laundering, theft and other criminal activities. Auditor independence is the auditor's main tool when performing basic auditing tasks, controls and reporting on suspicious transactions in accordance with the adopted code of ethics.

The risk-based approach is omnipresent in auditing even though auditors often focus on low-risk business entities. However, some business processes result in events and circumstances which increase the risk of fraud and errors. The risk of not detecting a fraud or error is significantly higher when it comes to fraud as it represents a deliberately incorrect statement while an error is a non-intentional omission resulting from negligence. Due to the implementation of international standards into a national framework, focusing on permanent training and control of the non-financial sector, the auditing profession has earned its role of “gatekeeper” in the anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing system.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 18.-21. mj. projekta

Rad Tatjane Kovač Klemar i Sonje Cindori pod nazivom "Hawala's Appeal In Terrorism Financing" je u postupku recenzije. Rad će biti prezentiran i objavljen u okviru 8th International Scientific Conference "Security Concepts and Policies - New Generation of Risks and Threats", Ohrid, Makedonija, lipanj 2017. 

Abstract

As an alternative value transfer system, Hawala has certain benefits, but also shortcomings when compared to the classical banking system. Hawala is implemented in value transfer systems of many Asian and Pacific countries effectively which is demonstrated by the fact that the flow of money through it amounts to billions of dollars annually. Beside its negative effect on the macroeconomic area as potential adverse statistical, fiscal, and balance-of-payments implications of such activities, there is one very specific positive characteristic inherent to Hawala which particularly stands out - the relationship of trust between participants who most frequently belong to the same ethnic group. Reasons why Hawala can be misused for money laundering and terrorism financing is because it is impossible to fully control and regulate such a system, there is no written record of carried out transactions and it is very efficient for moving large amounts of money quickly and secretly. Even though control of such a system can be described as "catching smoke", its significance and efficiency in money laundering and terrorism financing cannot be ignored, which is why appropriate prevention measures need to be implemented.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 20.-22. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Ane Zakarija pod nazivom "Prijevare u sustavu poreza na dodanu vrijednost kao predikatno djelo pranja novca" prezentiran je i objavljen i u okviru konferencije "Održivi ekonomski razvoj zasnovan na znanju  - ERAZ 2017", Beograd, lipanj 2017.

Sažetak

Pranje novca podrazumijeva svaki novac stečen kaznenim djelom zbog čega postoji uska veza s prijevarama u sustavu poreza na dodanu vrijednost. Oba sustava predstavljaju fenomen današnjice u prijevarnim postupanjima zbog načina njihova provođenja, često bez vidljivog traga. Nadležne institucije Republike Hrvatske imaju za cilj onemogućiti pranje novca, a time suzbiti i predikatna djela te na minimalnu mjeru svesti kaznena djela prijevara u sustavu poreza na dodanu vrijednost. Njihova se poveznica očituje ne samo u činjenici uzročno-posljedične veze, već u posljedicama na gospodarstvo, socijalnu stabilnosti i kredibilitet države u cjelini.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 20.-23. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Jelene Slović pod nazivom "Identifying Money Laundering In Business Operations As A Factor For Estimating Risk" prezentiran je u travnju 2017. i objavljen u okviru konferencije "20th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development" Prag.

Abstract

Money laundering and terrorist financing can be performed in many ways, regular business operations being among them. Business activities go through a large number of business changes, which offers numerous options for money or assets to enter the company via seemingly legal business transactions, enabling money or assets to remain in regular business flows once money laundering is completed. On the other hand, the opposite scenario, in which there is interest in money to be transferred from regular flows to alternative flows, including terrorism financing, is also common.This paper will discuss legal business operations as a framework for money laundering and terrorist financing. Cash flow cycles are presented in form of an algorithm as connections between irregularly and regularly acquired assets in the process of money laundering through business operations, as well as re-entry from regular flows into alternative cash flows. The "Butterfly Diagram", presenting groups of business changes enabling entry of larger amounts of money and assets owned by a company in order to be laundered or their exit with the effect or tax evasion or terrorism financing, evolved from the algorithm. Also, the "Butterfly Diagram" includes certain forms of legal and tax misuse which enable legalising the specified activities. The business reality is exceptionally dynamic and needs of money launderers keep growing, which is why there is an increase in types and numbers of business transactions that can be used for money laundering or terrorism financing, resulting in the need to keep modifying the presented "Butterfly Diagram".

 

Realizacija radnog plana 23.-26. mj. projekta

Rad Snežane Mojsoske i Nikole Dujovskog pod nazivom "The connection of macroeconomic variables and money laundering" je prezentiran i objavljen u okviru konferencije 8th International Scientific Conference "Security Concepts and Policies - New Generation of Risks and Threats", Ohrid, lipanj 2017. 

Abstract

The term money laundering is integrally connected to the problem of corruption, organized crime, financial fraud, smuggling and other crimes that are made with a single purpose of making profit. The fact is that every year large sums of money generated by illegal activities such as drugs, tax evasion, theft, corruption, human trafficking and so on. This problem causes major consequences on the national and on the international economy. There is a strong connection of money laundering with macroeconomics variables. This paper aims to analyze issues, impact and consequences of money laundering trough macroeconomic variables. There are several negative effects that money laundering make it to economy as effects on the real sector (business activities, on relative prices, consumption, saving, output, growth), influence on the public sector (revenues, privatization efforts), effects on the monetary economy and the financial sector. In conclusion will be give directions for further improvement of prevention of money laundering in order to protect national economies.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 23.-26. mj. projekta

Rad Nikole Dujovskiog i Snezhane Mojsoske pod nazivom "The role of police in organized crime and money laundering prevention" prihvaćen je za objavu u publikaciji "Journal of Money Laundering Control".

Abstract

Purpose: This paper aims to describe but also to discuss the role of the Police in anti-money laundering, with particular reference to the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

Design/methodology/approach: A doctrinal approach is used to describe the role of the Police in anti-money laundering policy, as well as to discuss whether the Police is the central and main body in the fight against this crime. Deductive and inductive methods are used to analyse the collected data about Macedonian activities, provided by domestic and international organizations and institutions. Governmental agencies, institutions and bodies with different capacities for identifying and combating money laundering are included.

Findings: According to global statistics, about 2 trillion dollars are laundered annually. Money laundering directly affects integrity and functioning of financial systems, financial stability, general economic and social life and the entire development, which shows why the concerns about this phenomenon have been growing worldwide. The most important issue in combating money laundering refers to preventing and detecting the problem. The police have the central role in combating money laundering in the Republic of Macedonia, but they must co-operate with public prosecutors and other agencies in order to fight this crime with more success. Even though Macedonian legislation is harmonized with EU directives, there are lot of activities in the field of money laundering to be done in order to fulfil EU standards. Relevant collected data was acquired from MONEYVAL reports, annual reports from the Ministry of Interior, Public Bureau of Statistics and statistics from the public prosecutor’s office, including all published documents

Originality/Value: The article answers questions related to the role and effectiveness of the Police by examining different authorizations and powers. Different approaches in implementing the law are specified and suggestions to overcome “two voices” are given. A comparative approach is also used to demonstrate the number of criminal charges per year, mainly collected by the public prosecutor’s office. The authors analyse whether additional training for the Police is needed. All institutions should collaborate with the Police because money laundering offences may be disclosed during investigations into other offences.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 23.-26. mj. projekta

Rad Snezhane Mojsoske pod nazivom "Recognition of Money Laundering by Institutions in the Republic of Macedonia" prezentiran je i objavljen u okviru konferencije „Policija i pravosudni organi kao garant slobode i bezbednosti u pravnoj državi”, Tara, Srbija, 2017.

Abstract

Money laundering as a complex criminal offence makes the work of police and judiciary hard in the system in the Republic of Macedonia. Everyone must be prepared to recognize and fight against money laundering. From the economic point of view money laundering can be in relations with tax evasion, transactions, electronic payment, financial system, banks and others. According to this paper in Macedonia there is low perception of what money laundering is. There is a lack of information, training, and seminars for police and judiciary so that they can be trained to deal with this offence.

In this paper it will be analyzed how and how much institutions are trained to combat money laundering according the reports from Financial Intelligence Unit and the MONEYVAL report. The MONEYVAL report will also be analyzed and how the work of police and judiciary can be improved in the fight against money laundering.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 25.-27 mj. projekta

Rad Nikole Dujovskog i Toni Stankovskog pod nazivom "The Mechanisms for Control of the Police in the Function of Freedom and Security" prezentiran je i objavljen u okviru konferencije „Policija i pravosudni organi kao garant slobode i bezbednosti u pravnoj državi”, Tara, Srbija, 2017.

Abstract

Purpose: This paper aims to describe but also to discuss the role of the Police in anti-money laundering, with particular reference to the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

Design/methodology/approach: A doctrinal approach is used to describe the role of the Police in anti-money laundering policy, as well as to discuss whether the Police is the central and main body in the fight against this crime. Deductive and inductive methods are used to analyse the collected data about Macedonian activities, provided by domestic and international organizations and institutions. Governmental agencies, institutions and bodies with different capacities for identifying and combating money laundering are included.

Findings: According to global statistics, about 2 trillion dollars are laundered annually. Money laundering directly affects integrity and functioning of financial systems, financial stability, general economic and social life and the entire development, which shows why the concerns about this phenomenon have been growing worldwide. The most important issue in combating money laundering refers to preventing and detecting the problem. The police have the central role in combating money laundering in the Republic of Macedonia, but they must co-operate with public prosecutors and other agencies in order to fight this crime with more success. Even though Macedonian legislation is harmonized with EU directives, there are lot of activities in the field of money laundering to be done in order to fulfil EU standards. Relevant collected data was acquired from MONEYVAL reports, annual reports from the Ministry  of Interior, Public Bureau of Statistics and statistics from the public prosecutor’s office, including all published documents

Originality/Value: The article answers questions related to the role and effectiveness of the Police by examining different authorizations and powers. Different approaches in implementing the law are specified and suggestions to overcome “two voices” are given. A comparative approach is also used to demonstrate the number of criminal charges per year, mainly collected by the public prosecutor’s office. The authors analyse whether additional training for the Police is needed. All institutions should collaborate with the Police because money laundering offences may be disclosed during investigations into other offences.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 25.-28. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Jelene Slović pod nazivom "The Role of Corporate Governance in the Origins of Corporate Crime" prezentiran je u kolovozu 2017. na konferenciji "International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2017, Albena, Bugarska.

Abstract

A series of big scandals from 1990s has drawn attention to the corporate sector and has brought about questions regarding the quality of the legislative scope of corporate governance. Apart from the active role of corporate governance as the key factor in protecting companies from corporate crime, particularly on the microeconomic level, its contribution on the macroeconomic level is also not negligible in terms of its impact on the effects of illegal business operations through the implementation of money laundering and terrorist financing prevention systems. Goals of corporate crime and money laundering as well as terrorist financing are often intertwined. Their modus operandi includes legal and regular business transactions, but also various corporate, tax, legal and IT speculations which contribute to the realization of unlawful activities. Affirmation of corporate crime through seemingly regular business activities points to the fact that when raising awareness of tax and other authorities, as well as numerous practitioners in the role of supervisors in the process of detection of money laundering or terrorist financing risks, the possibility of detecting suspicious transactions increases. The extent of operations subject to illegal activities speaks in favour of the fact that governance structures in companies have a significant impact on corporate crime in the sense of its prevention or realization, which brings the importance of corporate governance to a higher level.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 27.-29. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori pod nazivom "Recent Trends in Anti Money Laundering System: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction" prezentiran je i objavljen u okviru konferencije The Third International Scientific - Professional Conference Security and Crisis Management - Theory and Practice „Safety for Future 2017”, Obrenovac, Srbija.

Abstract

The rise of a new threat to global security in form of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and its financing resulted in the need to take coordinated measures to protect the integrity of the international financial system and implement them into national legislation. Even though proliferation is close to the issue of terrorism with regard to terminology and basic characteristics, the primary goal of its prevention is achieved by the application of anti-money laundering measures within the framework of the risk based approach basic principles. Collected information about clients and transactions are confidential and are processed and treated using applicable screening and further monitoring measures. They need to be exchanged with competent institutions on the national and international level, financial intelligence units and the private sector. Key similarities with the anti-money laundering and terrorism financing issues will undoubtedly set the pace and direction of the measures for the prevention of proliferation and its financing, while emphasising its particularities which require specific treatment.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 28.-30. mj. projekta

Rad Žane Pedić pod nazivom "Interconnectivity and differences of the (information) privacy right and personal data protection right in the European Union" je objavljen u Review of Comparative Law, Vol. 3, 2017.

Abstract

Right to (information) privacy and right to personal data protection have many common contact points. However, the very act of developing data protection, as a younger right into the sui generis right shows that these two rights are not the same and that there are differences between them, huge enough to make them separate legal rights. The main trigger for noticing their different nature, purpose and background and for development of the data protection into the separate right was the revolution in the information technology solutions. This IT progress, for the first time, enabled massive and relatively cheap operations with the personal data and brought not only concern about the security of the personal data, but also unbelievable business possibilities. It was the turning point for the codification of the data protection right which started from 1970ies, aiming to create separate rules and legislation which will understand the importance of not only of protecting personal data but of their regulated and lawful usage. Despite all what was said, there is still certain confusion regarding these two rights, mainly because in the initial phase of the massive usage of the new IT solutions, when the data protection legislation still wasn’t developed, information privacy right served as the only legal protection of the data protection right and the relationship between these two rights is complex even today and deserves to be further researched.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 30.-33. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori i Ksenije Ostojić po nazivom "Atraktivnost off shore zona kao utočišta porezne evazije i pranja novca" prezentiran je i objavljen u okviru konferencije "Liderstvo i Menadžment: integrisane politike istraživanja i inovacija - LIMEN 2017", u prosincu 2017. u Beogradu, Srbija.

Sažetak

Države ili područja unutar država koja se smatraju poreznim oazama primjenjuju jednostavan način osnivanja trgovačkih društva, a njihov se razvoj povezuje sa svjetskim trendovima globalizacije, liberalizacije tržišta i deregulacijom. Iako poslovanje u poreznim oazama ne mora nužno biti nezakonito, korištenje povoljnog poreznog tretmana negativno utječe na fiskalni sustav rezidentnih država te dovodi u pitanje temeljno načelo pravednosti oporezivanja i snošenja poreznog tereta prema ekonomskoj snazi poreznih obveznika. Takvo je postupanje zapaženo kao modalitet pranja novca i financiranja terorizma zbog inzistiranja na bankarskoj tajni, što neposredno zahtjeva primjenu sustava procjene rizika prilikom provođenja transakcija, s naglaskom na dubinsku analizu stranke i utvrđivanje stvarnog vlasnika.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 30. mj. projekta

Dana 26. listopada 2017. održana je radionica pod nazivom "Recentni modaliteti terorizma i njegovog financiranja". Slike s radionice dostupne su u repozitoriju.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 32. - 35. mj. projekta

Rad Sonje Cindori pod nazivom "Financial Inclusion as a New Challenge to Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing System" prezentiran je i objavljen na međunarodnoj znanstvenoj konferenciji  "Ekonomija u promijenjenom sigurnosnom okruženju“ EKOB 2018, Beograd, Srbija.

Abstract

Financial inclusion is a term that is primarily applied to individuals, households, and microenterprises in areas with a high degree of poverty who use informal financial services rather than formal and protected financial system. In order to resolve the issue of financial exclusion, a wide range of unfinished financial products and services are offered to such a profile of users with the aim of reducing poverty and boosting prosperity. In addition to raising the quality of economic and social life conditions, it is evident that financial inclusion is a very important part of reducing the risk of uncontrolled cash flow leading to direct correlation to anti-money laundering and terrorist financing goals. According to mentioned, there is an issue of identifying, assessing, understanding and mitigating money laundering and terrorist financing risks, depending on customers' profile, type of products, services, and conducted transactions or delivery channels used. Using the method of classification and description, the paper analyses the problem of financial exclusion, the modalities of financial inclusion, connection to anti-money laundering measures in a scope of due diligence and risk based approach, as well as an importance of national risk assessment to determine the level and nature of the risk environment and other risk indicators.

 

Realizacija radnog plana 34. - 36. mj. projekta

Rad pod nazivom "Economic Analysis of Money Laundering Prevention in Croatia and Slovenia" autora Mete Ahtik, Ozrena Pilipovića i Mirana Marelje je prihvaćen za objavu u publikaciju "Journal of Money Laundering Control".

 

Abstract

Design/methodology/approach - The methodology of the economic analysis of law is used to analyse the effectiveness of laws in Croatia and Slovenia regarding the definition and the role of reporting entities in money laundering prevention in these two countries. A comparative approach is also used since we compare the effectiveness of Slovenian and Croatian legal systems and their compatibility with EC Directive (2015/849)

Findings - We find that banks have long clinged to the guaranteed confidentiality of deposits, which means that money laundering has undoubtedly brought them some benefits in the short term. The prevention of money laundering for banks is not free. The measures imposed on the bank by legislation (encouraging these banks to a higher level of demand for preventive behaviour) entail costs that go beyond the direct, visible benefits of the implemented measures. However, a functioning and stable financial system has a number of externalities, of course, which are also enjoyed by banks.

Originality/value - The paper focuses on economic analysis of Croatian and Slovenian legal systems with regards of the regulation of role of reporting entities in the prevention of money laundering which produce certain costs and benefits for the financial system and reporting entities as whole. The paper also uses the comparative approach to address the problem of compatibility of Croatian and Slovenian legal system with the EC Directive (2015/849).

 

Realizacija radnog plana 23. - 36. mj. projekta

Udžbenik pod nazivom "Sustav prevencije pranja novca i financiranja terorizma - II  dio - Nove prijetnje globalnoj sigurnosti" je u postupku recenzije.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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