States of Emergency in Comparative Constitutional Law

Course syllabus:


  • Notion of States of Emergency (Roman institution of dictator; state of siege; martial law; modern constitutional regulation of states of emergency)


  • Constitutional consequences of States of Emergency (concentration of constitutional authority; restrictions of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms)


  • Classical Theories of States of Emergency (J. Locke, A. V. Dicey, C. Schmitt, C. L. Rossiter, C. J. Friedrich)


  • Contemporary Notion of States of Emergency and the “War on Terror” (United States of America, France, Federal Republic of Germany)


  • Modern American Normative Doctrines of States of Emergency


  • States of Emergency in Practice – Selected Issues





Gross, O, i Ní Aoláin, F., Law in Times of Crisis – Emergency Powers in Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2006.


Additional selected sources:


  1. Ackerman, B., Before the Next Attack (Preserving Civil Liberties in an Age of Terrorism), Yale University Press, New Haven & London, 2006.
  2. Agamben, G., State of Exception, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 2005.
  3. Baker, S. A., Kavanagh, J. (eds.), Patriot Debates (Experts Debate the USA PATRIOT Act), American Bar Association Publishing, Chicago (2005).
  4. Berkowitz, P. (ur.), Terrorism, the Laws of War, and the Constitution – Debating the Enemy Combatant Cases, Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, Stanford (2005).
  5. Dicey, A.V. Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, Liberty Classics, Indianapolis, 1982.
  6. Ferejohn, J. i Pasquino, P., The Law of the Exception: A Typology of Emergency Powers, International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol. 2, number 2 (2004), str. 210-239.
  7. Finn, J. E., Constitutions in Crisis – Political Violence and the Rule of Law, Oxford University Press, New York, 1991.
  8. Friedrich, C. J., Constitutional Government and Democracy – Theory and Practice in Europe and America, Fourth Edition, Blaisdell Publishing Company (A Division of Ginn and Company), Waltham, Massachusetts – Toronto – London, 1968.
  9. Issacharoff, S. i Pildes, R. H., Emergency contexts without emergency powers: The United States’ constitutional approach to rights during wartime, International Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 2 (2004), str. 296-333.
  10. Lobel, J., Emergency Power and the Decline of Liberalism, 98 Yale. L. J. 1385 (1988-1989), str. 1385-1433.
  11. Locke, J., The Works of John Locke in Nine Volumes, 12th ed., Rivington, London, 1824, vol. 4.
  12. Posner, E.A. i Vermeule, A. Terror in the Balance – Security, Liberty and the Courts, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007.
  13. Posner, R. A. Not a Suicide Pact – the Constitution in a Time of National Emergency, Oxford University Press, New York, 2006.
  14. Rosenfeld, M., Judicial Balancing in Times of Stress: Comparing the American, British, and Israeli approaches to the War on Terror, 27 Cardozo Law Review 2079 (2006), na str. 2079-2151.
  15. Rossiter, C. L., Constitutional Dictatorship – Crisis Government in the Modern Democracies, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1948.
  16. Schmitt, C., Politische Theologie, Vier Kapitel zur Lehre von der Souvernität, Verlag von Duncker und Humblot München und Leipzig (1934)
  17. Stone, G. R., National Security v. Civil Liberties, 95 Cal. L. Rev. 2203 (2007), str. 2203-2212.
  18. Stone, G. R., Perilous Rimes – Free Speech in Wartime (From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism), W. W. Norton & Comp. Inc., New York, 2004.
  19. Tushnet, M. (ed.), The Constitution in Wartime – Beyond Alarmism and Complacency, Duke University Press, Duke & London, 2005.
  20. Yoo, J., The Powers of War and Peace – the Constitution and Foreign Affairs after 9/11, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 2006.


The first class will be held on Wednesday, March 18th 2015, starting at 2 p.m. Location: Trg m. Tita 3, hall V (3rd floor).   Students are asked to identify relevant constitutional consequences (1. concentration of constitutional authority; 2. restrictions of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms) of states of emergency in the following constitutions (please, copy-paste those provisions on a separate paper):   a) US Constitution ( b) French 1958 Constitution ( c) German 1949 Basic Law ( d) Croatian Constitution (as amended in 2010) ( e) Russian 1993 Constitution ( f) Constitution of Japan of 1947 ( g) South African Constitution of 1996 (as finally amended in 2012) ( h) Particular constitution of their country of origin (you might use the following link: